MBET’s Solution for Global Warming (and Ocean Acidification / Hypoxia)
There have been five documented, major global extinctions over the last 500 million years. Although there have been many speculative causes of these extinctions, the common theme is how little changes of temperature and other environmental changes (water and air pollution, pH, O2/CO2 concentrations, salinity, etc.) over a “short” period of time can and will lead to dramatic loss of plant and animal species.
Most scientists believe that the Earth is presently in its sixth mass extinction losing more plant and animal species (land and water) in the last 50 years than any 50-year period in the last 65 million years. This was when the asteroid hit Mexico culminating the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction. Presently, different than all previous mass extinctions, which involved natural disasters (volcanic eruptions, asteroid/comet impacts, mass tectonic disruptions, etc.) the present one involves out-of-control human activity leading to out-of-control global warming. The primary human activity is burning fossil fuels contributing to the massive increase in carbon dioxide which is the major component of Green House Gases (GHG). This increase in GHG has already created a global temperature increase of more than 1°C in less than ten years. The generally accepted scientific statistics are that ecosystems cannot evolve fast enough to acclimate to a 3.5°C increase over a 100 year period. Thus, the sixth global extinction seems inevitable, unless MBET can initiate its Global Warming Solution! Elon Musk said: “we are running the most dangerous experiment in history right now which is to see how much carbon dioxide the atmosphere can handle before there is an environmental catastrophe.”
The total human and environmental costs of global warming are beyond comprehension and are brilliantly and comprehensively defined in a paper co-authored by an MBET Member, Eduardo Schwartz (see article 1).
Using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model, the paper examines the loss of economic growth resulting from global warming. It is shocking the consequences of delaying abatement. They estimate waiting 10 years reduces the possibility of climate stabilization from 60% to 30%, waiting 20 years reduces this possibility to less than 10%!! The results of not stabilizing global warming are catastrophic, economically and most importantly the survival of the human species. This paper clearly shows the urgency of initiating the abatement process but presently there are no viable solutions which can be scalable to deal with this impending disaster, except MBET’s Solution for Global Warming. MBET is focused on solving global warming without financial assistance by using cash flow from its 21 technology companies. This, unfortunately, will delay MBET Global Warming Abatement Program for about five to six years. This paper emphasizes the speed of abatement relative to the possibility of success and thus MBET is open to financial support to initiate our program now. The MBET Kelp Reforestation Program is ready to initiate and scale today!
[Article 1 “Optimal Carbon Abatement in a Stochastic Equilibrium Model with Climate Change”]
In an interview with Charlie Rose, Bill Gates was asked why his foundation has shifted its focus from health and education to Global Warming and clean energy. His reply was that human health and education is meaningless if we don’t have a planet in which to live. Presently, knowledgeable scientists, celebrities, and politicians are frantically arguing that Global Warming caused by burning fossil fuels is destroying the Earth as we know it. Tremendous amounts of money have been spent to educate the global population but GHG and Global Warming have continued a record-breaking trajectory upwards. Hundreds of videos, books, documentaries, etc. have emphasized the need to decrease the production of CO2 but there has been no sustainable or scalable way to do it. Michael Bloomberg, the Obama nominated Chairman for the United States Global Warming Initiative was asked how the U.S. was going to decrease GHG’s. His answer was that “the Initiative doesn’t start until 2020 and by then the U.S. will figure something out.” THIS IS NOT ACCEPTABLE! As Ronald Reagan said: “you cannot escape the responsibility of tomorrow by evading it today.”
Solving Carbon Dioxide
As you can see from the chart of Green House Gases the largest contributor of carbon dioxide is fossil fuel burning power-plants and heating systems (81% from coal + 19% natural gas/oil). They produce 63% of total annual, global carbon dioxide release. There has been a huge emphasis on renewable energy sources of solar, wind, geothermal, hydrodynamic, temperature gradient, etc. Unfortunately, presently these are costly and difficult to scale.
The other major sector of carbon dioxide production is transportation which produces about 36% of all CO2 emissions. There has been tremendous fanfare for electric vehicles. Presently, air and marine vehicles have no logistically way to use it. Electric cars and trucks represent less than 1% of vehicle sales (0.86%). Although electrical motors are more efficient and obviously less polluting than combustion engines, there are many problems trying to scale the electric vehicle technology. First, of course, is the electrical power. Coal-burning power plants are by far the most common sources of global electrical energy and thus vehicles which are recharging with this power source offer no ecological benefit. Lithium is a central component of the batteries which store the energy for the vehicles. The amount of global lithium may create a scaling problem for this technology. Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Australia, and China are by far the largest producers of this element which could affect the supply. Electrical plug-in vehicles have logistical difficulty traveling on long trips without taking extended periods of time to recharge. The efficiency and effectiveness of these lithium batteries decrease over time and use. A system for large-scale recycling of electric car batteries has not been developed and must be to be environmentally sound.
Green House Gases (Chart 1)
CO2 – 82% Methane – 10% Nitrous Oxide 5%
63% Power Plants/Heating Systems Domesticated Animals Fertilizer
19% Natural gas
36% Transportation –
72% autos, trucks, trains, etc.
14% marine transportation
1% Other, including cement production
What is the MBET Global Warming Solution? As with all revolutionary breakthroughs which MBET creates, it takes all existing scientific knowledge as the starting platform to use imagination to create innovation to change the world! As Albert Einstein said: “you can’t solve the problem by using the same thinking which you used to create it.” MBET realizes that the only scalable and expandable solution to this out-of-control global warming problem is to help strengthen nature to reverse and solve it. As Frank Lloyd Wright said: “Study nature, love nature, stay close to nature. It will never fail you.” The three major Green House Gases attributed to humans are carbon dioxide (82%), methane (10%), and nitrous oxide (5%). All three will be decreased by implementing MBET’s Solution for Global Warming. Chart 1 shows the three major GHG’s and their main causes.
To solve this “unsolvable” Global Warming problem, MBET must not just decrease carbon dioxide production (which has never in history been done) but actually decrease total carbon dioxide concentrations! This can only be done by not only decreasing production but also increased consumption of carbon dioxide (see Carbon Cycle Diagram).
As you can see from the above chart and diagram, MBET must markedly reduce carbon dioxide production by decreasing the combustion of fossil fuels and increasing its consumption through photosynthesis. Kelp biofuel is much cleaner burning than fossil fuels and conversion of fossil fuel power plants and cars into kelp biofuel ones is cost-efficient, effective and scalable. Thus, the production of carbon dioxide through combustion can be decreased using kelp biofuel. Similarly, as is outlined in the Kelp Reforestation Section, the consumption of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis by kelp is much greater than even the Amazon Rain Forest per acre. Thus the massive MBET Kelp Forests will also markedly increase the global carbon dioxide consumption. Because of the atmospheric/ocean carbon dioxide equilibrium (see Photosynthesis of the Ocean – C), these kelp forests will “suck” the carbon dioxide from the air and convert it into oxygen and kelp. Because of the revolutionary MBET carbon fiber mesh technology, this kelp reforestation could be over 200 times the area of its native habitats. This will not only create massive carbon sequestration and carbon dioxide consumption (see Carbon Cycle Chart) but also a massive kelp ecosystem to help feed the world, thus, enabling the replacement of land-based food with ocean-based greens and protein. This shift in diet will dramatically reduce methane and nitrous oxide (the second and third major Green House Gasses).
Other scientists have thought about using kelp forests to produce kelp biofuel and other areas of the world have ocean-based diets. SO WHY HAVE KELP FORESTS NOT FILLED THIS ROLE?
As is thoroughly reviewed in the MBET Kelp Reforestation section, kelp forests and other ocean macro algae and micro algae ecosystems are dying. Ocean warming, acidification, pollution, salinity, predators, increased intensity of storms, and other environmental problems have all but eliminated these ecosystems. 94% of Californian and over 70% of Canadian kelp forests have been wiped out. The western coast of Baja, Western United States and Western Canada used to have the largest, healthiest and most productive kelp forests in the world. They are now terminally ill. The entire basis of MBET’s Solution for Global Warming is its proprietary and patent-pending equipment and technologies of MBET Selective Breeding and Hybridization System. As is discussed throughout this website (including chart C on Ocean Photosynthesis), feeding and powering the world while cleaning the environment only happens if MBET speeds natural evolution (without DNA manipulation) not only to restore the World’s vegetative ecosystems but to expand them.
Solving Methane/Nitrous Oxide While Feeding the World
The world’s population over the next 30 years is expected to surpass 9.5 billion people. This population growth is much faster than the available clean food and water. Presently, 795 million people (one in nine people) in the world are malnourished. 98% of these people live in developing countries. The worst areas for hunger are Asia (525.6 million), Sub-Saharan Africa and Middle East (214 million) and Latin America and the Caribbean (37 million). These are the three poorest and least adaptive areas of the world. Nearly half of all deaths due to malnutrition are in children under the age of five (three million per year).
Because the marine ecosystems have been decimated by the harsh environmental changes and over-consumption has completely depleted the ocean “proteins” (presently 92% of the most popular predatory fish are gone), virtually all food in 30 years will come from land-based crop and animal agriculture. Presently land-based food production is plateauing. There is very little land-based food scalability.
World Resources Institute estimates there will be a 70% food gap, the difference between food production in 2006 vs expected consumption in 2050. This is not a distribution problem. This will be magnified by the dramatic increasing average calorie intake and shifting of global diets away from the more sustainable plant-based diet to environmentally wasteful animal-based diets. There will be an estimated 80% increase in demand for beef, dairy, pork, lamb, chicken, and eggs (with beef alone expecting 95% increase). Beef produces 20 times more greenhouse gases and requires 20 times more land per gram than plant-based protein (soy, beans, lentils, peas).
Lack of food and water has already started large-scale conflicts. Presently armed “revolutionary” groups are stealing from the poor, especially through much of the middle half of Africa. Many political science experts feel that this is only the start. Most scientists believe that Earth’s sustainable population capacity is two to three billion people. Having three to four times the population which is considered sustainable is the basis of the Earth’s present plight. This, combined with human’s unwillingness to be environmentally conscientious is the formula which is leading to the start of the Sixth Mass Global Extinction. MBET’s Vision is: “Feed, Heal and Power the World While Cleaning the Environment.” The solution to do this is the theme of this website. Providing clean food and water, while reducing Green House Gasses and protecting ocean and land ecosystems, will be one of if not the greatest challenges in human history.
The shifting global diet towards land-animal-based proteins (meat and milk, is not only more resource-intensive but also environmentally damaging by producing tremendous amounts of Green House Gasses which are directly responsible for the present global warming. Beef is the least efficient source of calories and protein, generating six times more GHG/unit of protein than pork, chicken and eggs and 20 times that of soy, beans, and lentils. The world population is also consuming more protein than the average daily protein requirement.
75% of all freshwater is presently being used for land-based animal and plant crop production. That water will be essential for drinking for many areas of the world like Southwest United States, Western South America, most of Western Australia, Middle East, North Africa, Western China, etc. Reducing, rather than increasing, farmland will also be necessary for the two added billion people over the next 30 years. Reducing beef consumption alone could not only save up to 1.6 billion acres of land (twice the size of India) but also reduce the anticipated greenhouse gases by 168 billion tons of CO2 equivalent (three times the total global emissions in 2009).
How can consumers’ diets be changed? The goal is to gradually shift preferences. First, while the ocean ecosystems are regenerated by MBET, dietary shifts from the most inefficient and polluting animals (beef, sheep, goats) into less damaging chickens, pigs and turkeys. Second, shifting back towards more vegetables which are the most efficient and least environmentally damaging protein source. Third, as MBET strengthens and expands the ocean ecosystems, increase dietary fish and ocean “greens”. Making small shifts in diet from the environmentally damaging land-based foods to ocean-based foods by large populations will make a huge impact globally. As has been reviewed, the most costly (greenhouse gases, land and water use, etc.,) food is the land-based animal protein.
“Shifting billions of peoples’ diets requires larger, systemic changes.” The World Resources Institute has introduced a new protein scorecard ranking from lowest (plant-based foods) to the highest impact (beef, lamb, and goat) based on associated GHG emissions per gram of protein. It also includes the relative cost per gram of protein.
The end goal or perfect scenario to this dietary shift will be to switch from land-based food to ocean-based food. This is the only sustainable and scalable solution to feed and water the world. It is the only way to not only increase food production but also decrease GHG for the predicted 9.5 billion people in 30 years. This will only happen if the MBET Selective Breeding and Hybridization System is implemented globally. This system will not only allow the reforestation of indigenous macro and microalgae ecosystems but also by using MBET’s carbon fiber mesh to extend the area of growth up to 200 times its “normal” habitat. The subsequent ecosystem will more than fulfill its vision to “Feed, Heal and Power the World while cleaning the environment.”
Both methane and nitrous oxide are derivatives of land-based food production. Methane mainly comes from the digestive gases and feces of domesticated animals (cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, etc.) and nitrous oxide is the main ingredient of fertilizers. Thus, if we can shift away from land-based food to ocean-based food, both methane and nitrous oxide will be decreased. As is already present in Asia, ocean ”greens” and protein are a central component of their diet. Furthermore, both ocean-based vegetation and protein are far healthier than land-based food. As discussed in MBET Kelp Reforestation, kelp has more protein than soy, more calcium than milk, more vitamin C than oranges, etc. Fin fish (salmon, tuna, cod, etc.) and shellfish (oysters, clams, scallops, abalone, etc.) have much healthier lean protein than beef, lamb, pork, chicken, etc. MBET’s Selective Breeding and Hybridization System will further improve the seafood health benefit. In the MBET Kelp Reforestation Section, there is a complete discussion on how MBET will increase the production of the most desired predatory fish while improving the ecosystem. This will be done by using MBET Ocean Ranching. This is similar to Canada’s salmon ranching but will be sustainable and scalable and will maximize total seafood production in the new regenerated kelp forests.
Today, land-based agriculture of plants and animals contributes over 25% of global greenhouse emissions, uses 45% of the non-glacial land mass and consumes about 75% of used freshwater. Agricultural needs are expected to increase another 10% in the next 10 years because of global warming alone. Many “environmentally conscientious” governments are pushing for an increase in biofuel use to decrease C02 and other pollutants emissions. Presently, almost all biofuels are from land-based crops. However, most of the sources of biofuel are environmentally damaging (see Biofuel Section) because of 1) the requirement of nitrous oxide fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides 2) an expensive and energy consuming production process and 3) using land which would normally be used to grow food (thus making food more expensive). Many governments around the world are demanding increased biofuel/fossil fuel ratios which will further deplete crops for human consumption.
What are the logistics of making the planet-saving dietary change from land-based to ocean-based food? As has been outlined by the World Resources Institute, maximizing information and education by incorporating the influential leaders from the food, health, fitness, medical and environmental sectors will be essential. Small progressive changes involving billions of people will make a huge difference. Several experts including WRI have created a “Shift Wheel” designed to change consumer purchasing. It is divided into four complimentary benefit(s): Maximize Awareness and Evolve Social Norms, Minimize Disruption and Sell Compelling Benefits.
Before starting the P.R. campaign to shift from land-based to ocean-based food, there must be a rejuvenation of the ocean. There can be no change until the terminally ill ocean ecosystems are not only restored but expanded beyond their natural habitats (see Kelp Reforestation and Coral Reef Restoration Sections). The massive kelp reforestation and coral reef restoration will be the basis for sustainable and prolific supply of seafood (both protein and vegetation). Since land-based animal and plant food production is plateauing, the ocean, which comprises 71% of the surface of the Earth is the only possibility to produce the needed food for the anticipated increased population of two billion people.
MBET’s Ocean Ranching and MBET’s Organic Aquafarming (being environmentally beneficial) will be the foundation for the revolutionary process of producing the most desired predatory fish (Salmon, tuna, cod, swordfish, bass, etc.) without depleting the rest of the ecosystem.